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Ethical issues on the web and requirements engineering

By: Arfan786

Ethical issues on the web and requirements engineering


WWW, Ethics, identity, privacy

Ethical issues on the World Wide Web

What are ethics?

Ethics is a system with many things to do, these principles can affect decision made by people principles is described as moral viewpoint and tells you what is good for individuals and also society (BBC,2014). For example, if you had good morals you would not act as someone else on the web and write wrong stuff, as this could cause upset the customer.

The moral issues on the WWW include:

·         Different users

·         quickly developing technology

·         Privacy

·         Personal data storage

·         Challenges of enforcement

In this blog i’m going to tell you about privacy worries and about your digital identity.

Every single time you share a video on Facebook, order products online or signing up for a website, you are building your digital identity. Even everything that you search for on Google is kept on record.

If you ever think about how much information you can share on the web, this information is saved this makes up your digital identity, it can be amazing or a person’s worst nightmare.  This day and age the technology is so advanced that you leave behind a massive digital footprint, but the question allot of people ask is do we want that? And if so How far can it go?


Requirements are ‘A statement of a system service or constraint (kotonya&Sommerville. 1998)

They may describe:

·         Constraint on the development of the system

·         User-level facility

·         General system properly

·         How to carry out some calculation

·         Specific limitation on the system

There are functional requirements, what a software system should do, and non functional requirements, which place on how the system will do so

The need for engineering:

·         To generate system requirements

·         Agreed decisions which are records

·         This could remove misunderstanding

·         This provides basis for testing system behaviour


BBC (2014) – Ethics: a general introduction

Kotonya, G. Sommerville, I. (1998) - Requirements Engineering: Processes and Techniques


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By: Arfan786



What is copyright?

Copyright is a defendant that defends ideas/work once it is given a form such as a film a photograph, a piece of writing, a piece of music etc. This limit’s the user of the original work by individuals this may be because the person may need it for his work,

These boundaries are frequently easy to get around, for example, the image I have used above is one I found from the photo sharing site Flickr ( This is a site where people post and share their images.

Why is copyright important?

Copyright is really important to creators which are their own item this gives the creator the legal right of ownership of the item they have produced. This provides the creator with at least some control on how their work is handled.

“Government figures estimate that there are around 770,000 original content creators in the UK who enjoy the protection of copyright and who receive income and incentive as a result of the copyright system – this includes software developers and musicians as well as writers and publishers”. (CLA,2014)


Creative Commons

Seyfang, M. (2008) – Mike Blogs, Flickr - (

Staffordshire University (2014) – What is Copyright?

The copyright licensing agency (2014) – Why is copyright important?

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Project Management

By: bta775

Project management is the application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to Project activities to meet project requirements. Project is a methodical approach to planning and guiding project processes from start to finish. Project management can be applied to almost any type of project and is widely used to control the complex processes of software development projects.

A dynamic process that utilises the appropriate resources of the organization in a controlled and structured manner, to achieve some clearly defined objectives identified as needs.

 Project management typically involves a one-time project rather than an ongoing activity, and resources managed include both human and financial capital.

 Project management knowledge areas, to help ensure successful projects: 

  Time Management

 Quality Management

  Cost Management


Project planning -Tools, PERT


Project management is a challenging task with many complex responsibilities. There are many tools available to assist with accomplishing the tasks and executing the responsibilities. Some require a computer with supporting software, while others can be used manually. Project managers should choose a project management tool that best suits their management style. No one tool addresses all project management needs.         

PERT (program evaluation and review technique)

Is a statistical tool, used in project management that is designed to analyze and represent the tasks involved in completing a given project.  Is a widely used method for planning and coordinating large-scale projects.

PERT Example chart for diagram networking 

 this a Gantt chart created using Microsoft Project (MSP). Note (1) the critical path is in red, (2) the slack  is the black lines connected to non-critical activities, (3) since Saturday and Sunday are not work days and are thus excluded from the schedule, some bars on the Gantt chart are longer if they cut through a weekend.


Why is Project Management Important in Business Industry?

Now days, you can find a project management specialist in every organization whether small, medium or large. Companies pay high salaries to these project managers happily because these managers return them double the amount through their services. Project management helps the organizations to get maximum return by using the minimum resources. It also helps you to cut your expenses. Moreover, it increases the productivity of employees or team members. Project teams work professionally which results in customer satisfaction. In current scenario when there is tough completion, a business can only succeed if it adopts innovation and creativity and project management ensures both these things.




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By: edy8494

Principles of system development

System implementations

The aspects of systems implementation are project planning, production or procurementof software (programming), testing within the project team and with the users, implementations (go live) and maintenance.

Project management

Project management is the application of processes, methods, knowledge, skills and experience to achieve the project objectives. The core components of project managementare: defining the reason why a project is necessary, capturing project requirements, estimating resources and timescales, preparing a business case to justify the investment, developing and implementing a management plan for the project, leading and motivating the project delivery team, managing the risks, issues and changes on the project, monitoring progress, managing the project budget, maintaining communications with stakeholders and the project organisation, provide good management.

Project planning

The purpose of project planning is to stay focused. The objectives of the project team are to deliver systems on time, within a budget and to an acceptable quality. The project manager must plan the project and monitor progress against a plan.


The system is implemented as software by the programmer. The software can be bought as an application package, it can also be created using an application generator.


Software testing is the process of evaluation a software item to detect differences between given input and expected output. Also to assess the feature of a software item. Testing assesses the quality of the product. Software testing is a process that should be done during the development process. In other words software testing is a verification and validation process. Also the software needs to be tested before it can be used. Forms of testing include module test, link test, system test and acceptance test. Testing software is a time consuming process. The project time allocated to testing could be 20 to 60 percent of the development time. Testing could help find bugs not identifying correctness.


Once designed, developed and tested it is time for the information system to go live.Tasks involved in preparing to put the system live include installing a new IT kit, data capture and data cutover and also training users and technical staff of the new system.


Project failure

Many new information systems are cancelled before they go-live. Reasons of failure could include poor estimating of the development effort, Inadequate sizing calculating the number of transactions and how much IT capacity is required. Changes to the specification and requirement through the development stage.


Once implemented the information system requires maintenance. Many businesses will have help desks systems which answer simple queries and passes on those it cannot handle. First level of support which only allows supports for simple queries. Second levelsupport deals with problems like bug fixes, and third level support helps with technical issues and system software and the IT installation.

Maintenance also covers enhancement- changes to meet the business needs and business expectations.

Eventually the information system will become absolute. The system can no longer meet business specifications or requirements. The IT platform used for information system are no longer viable, the system has to be replaced.


Blackboard 9/04/2014 Retrieved from:


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Implementing Systems

Implementing Systems

By: OllieChapman

Implementing Systems

Implementing a system is often a complex procedure which needs to be done carefully and intelligently in order to ensure that the system is successful and is not an immediate flop due to errors which could have easily been avoided should the right steps have been taken.



Project planning is often the first step taken and is of major importance, this is where the vision that you hold for the system needs to first be explored and research needs to be done to see if you are able to make the system you have in mind and whether it is to be a success, if this step was not done there is a high percentage chance that money would be wasted on creating a system that has not been thoroughly thought out.


Project Evaluation and Review Technique (also known as PERT) is a sequence of activities that ensure that the system is created well and in a way that is highly efficient, it highlights the timeline of the projects creation, showing all the steps that need to be completed. PERT fixates on tasks with no float time, which are to be done in order to ensure the earliest completion time.


An alternative to PERT is using a Gantt chart which is an alternative representation to the projects plan, it tracks the progress of the implementation of the system as well as allocating the workforce different roles.



This is a major step that involves the majority of the creation of the system, this step also holds the designing and areas of analysis.  The system is programmed using programming languages, the specific programming language used depends on the system in which you are creating, for example if you are creating a website you are more than likely going to be creating this using the HTML programming language. Other languages used to create systems include: Java, C++, Visual Basic, C# and PHP.



This is the step that follows the programming of the system, testing checks for any bugs or glitches within the system. Newly made systems often contain minor errors, which have occurred during the programming of the system, but testing ensures that the system does not hold these errors upon the implementation.


There are various different methods of a projects testing, for example The Module testing method involved taking each individual line of code and running it to ensure that each line is clear of mistakes. As you can imagine this is a method which takes a very long period to be completed due to how thorough it is. There are other methods such as System, Link and Acceptance testing.



This is making the system live for the use of others, this is only done once all the other steps are completed and the testing has shown that the system is clear of mistakes.



Even after the testing and implementing of a system, errors are often found, these may be errors such as the system struggling to handle the high number of people using the system or errors due to 3rd parties harming the system.



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By: nader.s.7


System Implementation

Is system where the project goes through five stages to be completed. These stages are (Project planning, Production or procurement of software (programing), Testing, Implementation and Maintenance) in order to complete the project.

The definition of System Implementation “The stage of systems development in which hardware and software are acquired, developed, and installed; the system is tested and documented; people are trained to operate and use the system; and an organization converts to the use of a newly developed system.”

Project Planning

The most important stage is project planning where to choose the methods, skills, knowledge and experience to achieve the project objectives by setting project goals, identifying project deliverables, creating project schedules and creating plans within budget and acceptable quality. It also relates or part of project management which use schedules such as PERT (program evaluation and review technique), Gantt chart (or bar chart) and other tools and techniques that suitable for the project.

PERT Example

Gantt chart example

Here an example of Gantt chart in use for a project to book a venue for concerts explaining the process of System Implementation in around 2 month period to complete the project objectives. During this time the emails famous brands celebrities fans to receive e-mails from the promotion process to selling the tickets required to fulfil the project final aim. It shows how long it might take time to start and end period of time take to plan the project step by step till it really happen in realty. 



It’s very vital to have knowledge of programing nowadays as the whole world based on technology in many different ways in life and in all different jobs types of living life as it evolving of modern society as comport programing start on every jobs. There are many programing languages used in systems such as C,C #, Java, C++, Visual Basic, Java, C++, Visual Basic, PHP, Ruby and PERL and many others to design the systems. Also there are the HTML and CSS because the internet become part of technology as well so the language well be used and to the language as programmers they have to be part of knowledge it.

Testing Must to be tested in working system to find bugs or problems in any of the programs or in in the service most of the times testing process happen before the release of the program/project to the organization or the client that expecting the project to be completed as part as quality product.     


System implementation

It where the process of installing the system to the new client organization after it has been designed, developed and tested thoroughly,    



Once the system is installed the errors that occur later on after the installation will require the project planner to fix theses errors as they the product/program producer.



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Systems implimentation

Systems implimentation

By: BTA673

Implemantation can be a major project in its own right, depending on what issues theire are with the system and what records/data from the legacy sytem needs to be retained for future refernce or use.

the more complex an information system is the more work that is involved in getting it to work in the correct manner, this can rase many different issues sutch as training the emplyees/users in how the new system works, removing legacy systems, and preventing users from chosing to work with legacy systems instead of switching to the new system.

there are several different ways in which a system can be implemented these are;

  • big bang  - this method has is the riskiest as if there is a problem with the system then there is nothing to fall back on. the big bank method involves switching off the old/legacy system and turning on the new system.
  • staged roll out - this method causes a dommino affect, where users/departments begin useing the new sytem in a sequenced basis, when all the potential issues with the system have been ironed out, for each user/department. the downside of this option is that it is time consuming and may not always be practical.
  • parrel roll out - this is when the new system and legacy systems are both active at the same time. this mehtod double the user work load until the old sytem is turend off.

once a system has been implement it is needs to be maintained this aspect of implementing the system can often take a back seat in some organisations, and many companys requre 24hour support.

1397227971-800pxparallel_running.png 1397227941-phased_implementation.png 1397228210-800pxdirect_changeover.png

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Systems Implementation

By: Vit


In this blog post I will talk about project planning function, easier ways of project planning and monitoring (PERT and Gantt charts). Also I will look at the programming stage of the SDLC, the purpose and types of testing stage, Implementation stage.

When organising a project (development of Information System) there are 5main stages:

  • Project planning;
  • Production or procurement of software (programming);
  • Testing within the project team and with the users;
  • Implementation (go live);
  • Maintenance;

Project planning

First of all, project manager must plan the project and check progress. It includes allocating clear tasks for project team members and defining a time period for certain task. There can be used two techniques:

  • PERT;
  • Gantt chart;


Pert stands for Program Evaluation Review Technique. It is a project planning technique that charts each activity in relation to other activities, taking into account the dependencies between them. (D.Whiteley, 2013) It helps to fit in a determined period of time, and protects from unrealistic and hardly implemented plans.


Gantt chart

It is a type of bar chart that plots projects activity against timescale and is used to document project plans. (D.Whiteley,2013). Gantt charts store more information about tasks, such as the individuals assigned to specific tasks, and notes about the procedures. They also offer the benefit of being easy to change, which is helpful.



Programming is the process of writing a computer program. For that there are designed a lot of languages which understand users commands used to control behaviour of machine. Introduction to programming is described in a link below:



This process consists of  ‘checking how the software works by submitting test data and checking that the results achieved meet expectations.’ (D.Whiteley, 2013) Testing has more detailed classification:

  • Module test: testing each unit of code in isolation – white box testing.
  • Link test: testing modules together as programs or sub-systems – black box testing.
  • System test: project team testing the complete system in the live environment; includes volume testing.
  • Acceptance test: user testing of the complete system to check it is an effective business tool.



After the system is tested, there follows system implementation process. It is described as ‘the act of taking a new Information System from its development stages and installing it for operational use.’ (D.Whiteley, 2013). Since it goes live, all project issues can have a bigger impact on this organisation operations.

  • System Implementation stages:
  • Installation of new IT equipment;
  • Data capture and data cutover;
  • Training (for users and technical staff);

Each of those steps are important when organising an Information System developing project. Consistent following of all steps lead to more succesful and effective project development process.  


D. Whiteley (2013). An introduction to an Information Systems. London: Palgrave Macmillan. 272-282;

unknown. (2013). PERT CHART. Available:

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Aspects of systems implementation

By: IdreesAhmed


This blog will give a brief overview of the aspects of systems implementation describing each stage one by one.

Project planning

The purpose of project planning is that it provides focus. Its objective is to deliver the system on time within a budget to an acceptable quality. A project manager must plan the project and monitor the progress alongside the plan. The tools and techniques of this are:

·         Critical path – activities which have no float time, so everything is completed by the date it is to be achieved.

·         Gant Chart – Allocation of resources are shown to each activity and used to track progress against the plan.


Information systems analyse the requirements and designs for the system which is required. It is then implemented as software by the programmer. The software can either be bought (in an application package), created (using an app generator) or programmed (using programming language).

The following factors should be taken note about programming:

·         Programming languages include C, C++, C#, Java, Visual Basic, PHP, Ruby, PERL and others

·         Programming is NOT all about maths

·         All languages regarding programming need to be compiled or interpreted at the run time into machine code.


Before the software is released it needs to be tested. The forms of testing are:

·         Module test – white box testing where you test each unit of code in isolation

·         Link test – black box testing where modules are tested together as programs or sub-systems

·         System test- complete system tested by the project team in the live environment includes volume testing

·         Acceptance test – user tests the complete system to see if it is an effective business tool

V Model

















Testing cannot prove the software is correct as there is a difference between finding bugs and identifying correctness. Also, it is a time consuming process and the project time given to It could be 20-60% of the development time (depending on the reliability of the system).


Once it’s been designed, developed and tested the information then needs to “Go Live”. Methods to prepare the system go live are:

·         Installing new IT kit

·         Data Capture and data cutover

·         Training user/technical staff

Possible approaches of Go Live are:

·         Big bang

·         Staged roll-out

·         Parallel running

Some new information systems do not meet the expectations  which causes failure. These could be because:

·         Poor estimates for the cost of the development

·         Sizing measurements of how much IT capacity is required

·         Changes to the requirement and specification half way through development process


Once implemented the information system requires maintenance. Organisations will have a help desk system which answers simple queries and passes on those it cannot handle…

·         First-level support – desktop support and simple queries

·         Second-level support: problems with the IS and bug fixes

·         Third-level support: technical issues with installation and system software.

Enhancement is also covered by maintenance where changing the IS to meet changing business needs and expectations.


Principles of systems development - Systems implementation - Gordon Fletcher




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By: rofiatsalako


According to Lyytinen& Robey 1999, Qassim(n.d.), Fletcher 2014, Information System Development (ISD) is known for its highly risky nature and failure rate even with advanced technology and tools.  However, the more complex an IS, the more difficult and time consuming the IS implementation and project management and the greater the chances of failure. Kappelman&Mclean 1991 remarks that users’ involvement in the implementation stage of an Information System (IS) design, psychologically, behaviour-wise is crucial for the success of ISD to be successful. This was discovered in a field study regarding installing and converting a Bank’s IS using questionnaires and path analysis. Furthermore, for an IS project to be successful, some researchers have argued that involving users is different from though related to allowing full user participation and understanding their psychological state on relation to IS design is essential to understanding IS success(Kappelman&Mclean). Despite incorporating this, IT Cortex statistics still show that:

·         Less than 20% IT&Information System(IS)  project are satisfactory (Supported by an article by Lewis,Hodge,Gamage&Whittaker(2011)

·         Large IT projects fail have more chances of failure than small ones.

World Bank Statistics 2014 shows high rate of project failure.

The question is why do IT projects&ISs fail.


Source: Marks 2014 - Why do projects fail.  ProjectPDQTM


Other reasons for system implementation/project failures include inadequate sizing/scale of the project, cost, resources, poor requirement engineering, poor system design, open-source software and changing requirement (Kutar 2014, Whiteley 2013, Fletcher 2014)


Robbey & Lyyntinen (1999) state that some of the reasons for IT/IS/ICT project failure is:

Ø  Collapse of Organizational intelligence concerning tackling system development complexities and

Ø  Failure of companies to learn from system development failures and design barriers



Source : Dilbert (2007). Comic strip on why projects fail. Available at: Accessed: 11th April 2014


Nonetheless, Whiteley (2013) asserts that for a successful system implementation and launch, there are crucial activities, some of which are:

·         Installation of an IT kit

·         Capturing the required data and cutting over data

·         Training users and Technical staff


Here is an example of a solar system implementation:

However, one of IS challenge is selecting the appropriate implementation approach to launch the IS. This might help project managers carry out the core tasks involved and also eliminate major risks. Furthermore, a point to note is, all system roll-out techniques have both human resource challenge and management challenges.(Fletcher 2014, Whiteley 2013).

The issue of project failure can never be overemphasized because it teaches us to learn from our past failures/mistakes. The truth is that everything eventually becomes out-dated including IS and it is important to continually maintain and improve on the performance of IS and IT. Practically, when projects fail, analysing the reason for such failure is fundamental to understanding and establishing more effective ways to improve on future projects and system design and implementation.

Nonetheless, it is better to:

·         Understand the

  1. principles &role of IS in business process
  2. IS elements and its relationship with everything;

·         Thorough understanding and analysis of system requirement and requirement engineering of IS            projects;

·         Understand SDLC(System Development Life Cycle) for efficiency and effectiveness;

in designing, implementing and maintaining an effective IS/project and minimizing the risk of failure.

It is important to learn from failure but not learned to fail by rejecting poor performance, implementing design that encourage long term optimization, quality and adds value to individuals and organizational processes because its one of the reason we live in this digital age and these system failure and maintenance is probably what brings forth unimaginable development to our world. 



Dilbert (2007). Comic strip on why projects fail. Available at: Accessed: 11th April 2014


Fletcher, G(2014). System Implementation Lecture Notes.


Kappelman, L.A. and Mclean, R. E. (1999). The Respective Roles of User Participation and User Involvement in Information System Implementation Process.  Available at: Accessed 10th April 2014


KPMG (n.d.) Image for Why Projects fail. Available at: Accessed 11th April 2014.


Lewis, D., Hodge, N.,Gamage, D. and Whittaker, M. (2011). Understanding the role of technology in health information systems. Health Information Systems Knowledge Hub Working Paper Series Number 17. Available at: Accessed:9th April 2014


Lyytinen, K AND Robey, D. (1999). Learning Failure in information systems development. Information System Journal Vol.9 pp85-101. Available at: Accessed: 9th April 2014


Natalie Gil, N(2009( Why IT Projects fail. Available at: Accessed: 11th March 2014


Qassim, A.A.(n.d.) Why information systems projects fail: Guidelines for Successful OMAN Projects. Available at:  Accessed 9th April 2014

Whiteley, D. (2013). An Introduction to Information Systems. Palgrave Macmillian. NY, USA.



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Copyright Law

By: Saxon27

What is Copyright?

In week 10 and 11 I learnt a lot about copyright. I will be talking about what copyright is. I will also be talking about advantages and disadvantages of copyright.

What is Copyright

Copyright is a protection scheme to protect ideas. It can protect all physical ideas such as: a piece of writing, a photograph, music, a web page or even a film. There are many good points about copyright. There is no need for registration, protection for the ideas as soon as they are created. Not only are published work protected but also unpublished work are also protected.

The copyright of the piece of work is usually owned by the creator of the work. That could either be the author, artist or photographer. If the work is usually created in work environment then the employer usually holds the copyright.

The copyright holder can either sell or transfer to others. Once sold or transferred the idea is no longer theirs to copyright. The new owner can do whatever they like to the idea. It is very important not to confuse the ownership of the copyright.

Copyright is regulated by the law. The main statute in the UK being the Copyright Designs and Patents Act 1988.

Advantages of Copyright

Copyright gives the creator a piece of work that cannot be copied or stolen so they can carry on producing without a worry that someone will steal their idea. The registration allows the copyright holder to sue a person in federal court. This is an option not available to the persons that do not own a copyright registration.  If any changes happen the idea or any damage then the copyright holder can also sue the person responsible.

Disadvantages of copyright

A lot of money is needed if the idea you need to complete your project is owned by someone else who owns a copyright registration. Not only does it take a lot of money but also a lot of time to be the owner of that copyright registration. It can cause people not to complete some work because the ownership belongs to others and they may need that works to complete their project.

Consequences of breaking the copyright law

The consequences of using a copyrighted work without permission and if your usage is not exempt under copyright law then the holders hold rights to sue you. They can sue you for actual damage or loss of profits. This can be up to $150,000 per infringement.

Copyright in my opinion is a useless law and a waste of time and money. Without copyright people can use objects without the worry of being subject to illegal activity.




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Correct System Implementation or downfall for the project!

By: gb

System Implementation

     System implementation is a process which is completed in steps to accomplish main objective of the company or an individual.  Five main stages are clearly highlighted in the picture below which illustrates importance of every stage.

It is argued System implementation can have a huge saving if it’s undertaken and implemented correctly and could perhaps break company if it fails to complete the process correctly and implement the new system into place.

Here is the list of the most common causes why companies start upgrading their systems and start implementing new into existing workplace. As IT industry is ever growing for most companies to have a competitive advantage they must maintain their IT infrastructure in good health and upgrade if necessary.


Main causes for change.

  • New business/strategic developme
  • New technology
  • Organizational changes
  • Original specification is inadequate
  • Government/legal changes
  • External factors, e.g., suppliers, customers
  • New policies, e.g., security, financial cutbacks
  • Original specification is not property implemented
  • Personnel changes











As you can see form the picture above main stages of System Implementation are as follows:


        In this blog I would like to explain what we have learnt over past few weeks with regards to System Implementation and aspects that go with it. To begin with it would be to start with by explaining what is meant by Project Management and Planning?

Project management and planning is the application of processes, methods, knowledge, skills and experience to achieve the project objectives.

Each project is a unique, transient endeavour, undertaken to achieve planned objectives, which could be defined in terms of outputs, outcomes or benefits. A project is usually deemed to be a success if it achieves the objectives according to their acceptance criteria, within an agreed timescale and budget.

Common tool used for project planning are:

  1. PERT (program evaluation and review technique)
  2. The Gantt chart (or a bar chart) used to represent the project plan. 

Programming – involves analysing basic system requirements and design.  The system is then implemented as software by the programmer. Programming languages include C, C++, C#, Java, Visual Basic, PHP, Ruby, PERL and many others

Software can be:

  • Bought –in as an application package,
    e.g. an ERP system
  • Created using an application generator, e.g.
    MS Access forms and reports
  • Programmed: the design is interpreted as a detail
    set of instructions using an appropriate programming language.

Testing - Software must be tested before it goes live. As there can be serious consequences if system fails to work in live environment. There is a different methods for testing the software here is few examples:

  • Module test: testing each unit of code in isolation – white box testing
  • Link test: testing modules together as programs or sub-systems – black box testing
  • System test: project team testing the complete system in the live environment; includes volume testing
  • Acceptance test: user testing of the complete system to check it is an effective business tool


Implementation - System is installed and made operational in the production environment after the system and users’ acceptance testing. Activities in this phase include efforts required for implementation including notification to end users, execution of training, data entry or conversion, and system monitoring. 

Maintenance is directed towards reducing errors due to design, reducing errors due to environmental changes and improving the system’s scope and services. 



  • An introduction to Information Systems, 2013, PALGRAVE MACMILLAN

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system implementation.

system implementation.

By: bta652

There are different aspects of the system implementation.

This blog will look at the project planning implementation section


  • The project planning provides a focus
  • The objective of the project team is to deliver the system:
    • On time
    • Within a budget
    • To an acceptable quality
  • A project manager must:
    • Plan the project
    • Monitor progress against the plan


There are two tools and techniques you can use for project planning:

  • PERT (program evaluation and review technique)

Critical path – the sequences of acivities that have no float time. These activities need to be given priority to achieve the earliest end date for the project.

Minimum elapse time – the sum total of elapse time on the critical bath, the minimum time needed to complete the project.

  • The Gantt chart
    • This shows the allocation of resources to each activity
    • Track progress against the plan

How to Use the Tool

As with Gantt Charts, the essential way to do it is that you cannot start some activities until others are finished. These activities need to be completed in a sequence, with each stage being completed before the next stage can begin. These are follow on activities. Evison, A. (2013).


Before the software can be released for live use it must have its final tests done. There are different ways of testing the software:

  • Module test: testing each unit of code in isolation
  • Link test: testing modules together as programs
  • System test: project team testing the complete system in the live environment
  • Acceptance test: user testing of the complete system to check it is an effective business tool

The V-Model

V- model means Verification and Validation model. Just like the waterfall model , the V-Shaped life cycle is a sequential path of execution of processes. Each phase must be completed before the next phase begins.  Testing of the product is planned in parallel with a corresponding phase of development.


 Advantages of V-model:

  • Simple and easy to use.
  • Testing activities like planning happens well before coding. This saves a lot of time.
  • Avoids the downward flow of the defects.
  • Works well for small projects where requirements are easily understood.


Disadvantages of V-model:

  • Very firm and least flexible.
  • Software is developed during the implementation phase, so no early prototypes of the software are produced.
  • If any changes happen midway, then the test documents along with requirement documents have to be updated, which is time consuming.


Problems with testing

  • Testing software is a hassle and time consuming process
  • The project time allocated to testing could be between 20% to 60% of the development time
  • Testing cannot guarantee  that the software is correct:






Evison, A. (2013). Critical Path Analysis and PERT Charts. Available: Last accessed 10 Apr.

Blackboard Fletcher, G 2014

Hughes, L. (2012). What is V-model- advantages, disadvantages and when to use it?. Available: Last accessed 10 Apr 2014.


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Blog 4 - Weeks 9 - 10

Blog 4 - Weeks 9 - 10

By: jscattergood

Blog post weeks 9-10

Week 9 was regarding ‘Systems Implementation’ but like always we first discussed and quickly went over what we have previously learnt as a little re-cap.
Firstly we went over the aspects of Systems Implementation and this is basically a step to step method of how it works and processes. It is very similar to the Water cycle method in which it flows as each aspect is linked with each other. It starts off with project planning which is obviously deciding what you are doing and how you are going to achieve your goal. Secondly, it’s the programming which is juts the production/procurement of the software. Thirdly, it’s the testing of the programming that you have just done where you will test the project with the team and other users. Fourthly, is implementation where you simply just go live. Finally, is the maintenance.

After we had discussed and went over this we then had to do an activity in groups of two and three where we had to create a PERT and Gantt chart for a graduation party for the end of July.
It was just a thorough step to step guide of what you would generally do, such as choosing and then booking the venue, deciding who will be attending and then sending out invites, getting drinks and food etc.

Once everyone had completed the activity and wen went over it in class Gordon decided to go back to Testing from System Implementation as he believed it was important we knew that it isn’t completely accurate. We discovered that the testing process is very time consuming and even testing very thoroughly it still cannot prove that the software is correct; there’s a difference between finding bugs and identifying correctness.

Week 10 was mainly about image rights and licenses and whether we can use them or not. I discovered that images that you can just quickly Google search are actually protected and are not valid for you to use legally.
To find usable images there are several websites such as, creative commons, sxc, and copy left. This works exactly the same as a normal Google search but it will only search for images which the rightful owner has declared free for the public to use. This means the level of quality of the images are not likely to be as good.
A good example we used was New Zealand’s Kakapo as this has been declared extinct several times and are very rare to find. This means that good quality images of this will be rare and people found using images not authorised may face consequences. They way in which you can make sure if the photo/image is free to use again is by the little symbol that will be placed onto it. (Will upload image)

I found this very interesting as I never thought about this before and just took every photo that I have gotten off Google for granted and will definitely have creative commons and copy left in mind if I am ever creating a public blog or project in the future.


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Systems Implementation

By: Ervine95

In this week’s blog post I will provide insight into the way new systems are constructed, and the implementation of that new system into day to day business operations.

The steps involved with systems implementation are;

-       Project planning

-       Programming

-       Testing

-       Implementation

-       Maintenance

Project Planning

Project planning provides a focus as to what the initial aims and objectives are from the project, and to ensure that these are met to a high standard. The objectives of the project team are to deliver the system on time, within a budget, and to an acceptable quality. A project manager must plan the whole project, and oversee the progress to ensure that the plan is being followed.

PERT (Program evaluation and review technique) is a widely used method of planning that charts each activity in relation to other activities taking into account the dependencies between them. There are two aspects of PERT; critical path – the sequence of activities that have no float time, so they are high priority activities, minimum elapse time – the sum of elapse times on the critical path, the minimum time needed to complete the project.

The Gantt chart is a bar chart that plots project activity against a timescale and is used to document project plans. It shows the allocation of resources to each activity and tracks progress.

Above is an example of a PERT Chart


Programming is the process of designing, writing, testing, debugging and maintain the source code of computer programs. Code can be written in a number of programming languages include; Java, C, C++, Visual Basic and python. In this phase, requirements are analysed and then are designed into the required system. This system is then implemented into software by the programmer. The software can bought as an application package, created using an application generator or programmed.


Before software is released it must be tested to makes sure that everything with the system works as it should be, and to find any current or potential bugs. Forms of testing include; Module test – this tests each unit of code in isolation, Link test – tests modules together as programs or sub-systems, System test – the project team tests the complete system in a live environment, Acceptance test – a user thoroughly tests the complete system.

Implementation and Maintenance

Once testing is complete and the system is 100% ready, the new system can be made live. However, once it is made live, there should still be constant maintenance work to fix any user found errors and bugs.

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Principles of Systems Development

By: bayan

Principles of Systems Development


Project management is the discipline of arranging, organizing, motivating and guiding resources to achieve specific goals. Project management has basics no matter what the type of project, which is Definition, Planning, Execution, Control and Closure.

Defining the Project: define what the project is and what the users trying to achieve by undertaking the project. This also contains list of project deliverables, the product of limited set of activities.

Planning the Project: is kind of project management, which is related to the do schedules such as Gantt charts for planning and thereafter report progress including the project environment, at first the project scope is defined and the suitable methods for terminating the project are specified.

, Execution: give the structure to the project team. The project manager marks how many resources and how much will cost that he or she will have to work with for this project. Then the project manager gives these resources and destines the budget to different jobs in the project. The work for the project starts.

Controlling the Project: The project manager is the responsible for updating the project ideas to reflecting the time for each task and the details for it.

Closuring the project: business owner and the project manager work together with the team and who have benefit (stakeholders) to solve the ending of the project.

Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT), is a statistical tool which is used in project management for designing and analysing the tasks to complete a project. 

PERT include activity such as the critical path method:

Table 1: An example project for PERT calculations



























B and C





D and E





This will explain the meaning of an example of project data of table 1, by using these elements:

·         The calculation of the activity duration

·          the average critical path

·         The use of the central limit theorem

·         The presence of the normal distribution

Activity durations established for individual activity, as the following three steps:

1.     Optimistic time estimate, in short-term time the activity would be finished and  supposing everything will be perfect .

2.     Realistic time estimate. the activity can be done under normal circumstances.

3.     Pessimistic time estimate: in long-term time the activity may require, and presumes a worst-case script.

        Advantages of PERT:

·         PERT chart specifically defines and doing visible dependencies (precedence relationships) through the work breakdown structure.

·         PERT make easy identification of the critical path and makes this apparent.

·         PERT provides for possibility low project duration because of better understanding of dependencies for the best improved interfere of activities and tasks where feasible.

Disadvantages of PERT:

·         There are possibility hundreds or thousands of action and individual dependency relationships.

·         PERT is not simply scalable for minor projects.

·         When the PERT/CPM charts be impractical, it won't be any longer applied to manage the project.















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Systems Implementation

Systems Implementation

By: xiaoyuezhou


  1. What is Systems Implementation

The systems implementation process in terms of construction and delivery phases of the life cycle.

Systems implementation is the construction of the new system and the delivery of that system into production (that is, the day-to-day business or organization operation). he construction phase does two things: builds and tests a functional system that fulfills business or organizational design requirements, and implements the interface between the new system and the existing production system. The project team must construct the database, application programs, user and system interfaces, and networks. Some of these elements may already exist in your project or be subject to enhancement.


  1. Aspects of Systems Implementation

                                                                 Project management

               Conversions to new systems often get off track because companies fail to plan the project realistically or they don’t execute or manage the project by the plan. Remember that major systems conversions are not just IT projects. Companies should maintain joint responsibility with the vendor in the project-planning process, maintenance of the project-plan status, as well as some degree of control over the implementation.


                                     Process improvement and best-practice implementation

            These process changes will vary with the types of systems. With a warehouse management system, for example, these process changes may include vendor compliance, reporting of receipts, implementing new methods of picking, inventory cycle counting procedures and so on.


                                        System parameter configurations vs. modifications

           One of the most prevalent mistakes that companies make in implementing systems is trying to replicate their existing systems. Modifications increase cost, elongate the implementation timeframe and increase risk. We’ve seen companies insist on modifications only to realize in the first year of operation that there were better ways of using the new system than trying to replicate the old.


                                           Multiple instances of the software and database

          You will need multiple instances or copies of the software/database and application. Most software contracts restrict you to using only one copy of the system and one backup for recovery without negotiating for multiple set use. There are additional license charges for the additional copies that are often overlooked in the contract negotiations.


                                                                    Thorough testing

             Everything must be thoroughly tested — systems parameters, modifications, conversion programs. Testing means having the time and the involvement of the users, and then comparing test results to expected outcomes.



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By: laurahughes95



What is copyright?

Copyright protects original ideas/work once it is given a physical form such as a photograph, a film, a piece of writing, a piece of music, and so on. It restricts the use of the original work by people who want to use it for their own work, e.g. when you use an image for an assignment, that image most likely has copyright restrictions.

These restrictions are often simple to get around, for example, the image I have used above is one I found from the photo sharing site Flickr ( This is a site where people post and share their images, with the copyright limitations ranging from none (you can do what you want with the image) to quite restricted (can only use the image under certain procedures, e.g. give credit to the author, don’t Photoshop the image). Below is an example of the limitations for the above image.


Here are the copyright restrictions for the image of the copyright symbol. This screenshot shows that I am able to use and adapt this person’s image, as long as I give him credit for the image and specify changes made to the image, if I did so.



Example - YouTube


This video shows a good example about copyright infringement and the consequences for the specific website YouTube.  It talks about how using something that isn’t yours without permission can result in penalties such as the content being taken down and you could end up banned from the website.



Why is Copyright important?

Copyright is important to the original creators of the work such as photographers, artists and writers, as it provides them with a legal right of ownership of the work that they produce. This gives the creators some control over how their work is used, this is vital for them to make a living from their talents and efforts because otherwise they would basically be working for free.

“Government figures estimate that there are around 770,000 original content creators in the UK who enjoy the protection of copyright and who receive income and incentive as a result of the copyright system – this includes software developers and musicians as well as writers and publishers”. (CLA,2014)



My opinion

I think that copyright is important and should be respected as these images/music/text that we use have been created by someone and their creations should be respected as time, effort and talent has gone into these original pieces of work. I think that we should be more careful about the pieces of work we use, and ensure we abide by the copyright limitations. I believe that this is only fair.


For more information on Copyright visit - Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988






Creative Commons

Seyfang, M. (2008) – Mike Blogs, Flickr - (

Staffordshire University (2014) – What is Copyright?

The copyright licensing agency (2014) – Why is copyright important?

Youtube Copyright School – 2011





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Systems Implementation

By: nishathrahman

“Systems implementation is the construction of the new system and the delivery of that system into production (that is, the day-to-day business or organisation operation)” (Simmons, 2014). An example of this can be when an organisation develops an idea of introducing a new system either internally or externally to carry out operations, it is essential that the whole project if managed is in a manner that allows the whole group to focus on each aspect of the system design process. It is very important for the group to stay focused especially in modern organisations where technology is very fast developing.

Aspects of system implementation:

  • Project planning
  • Programming
  • Testing
  • Implementation
  • Maintenance

Project Planning

This video clip demonstrates the importance of project management within an organisation.

Project planning is also an important aspect of implementation as it provides one of the most essential needs required for a project which is the focus. The team has a set objective, which is to provide the system on time, with good quality and within the budget set by those who require the system.  The project manager should be planning and monitoring the project against the plan as these are the two main requirements involved in planning a project which I will describe below

  • PERT (program evaluation and review technique)
  • Gantt chart (or a bar chart)

Example of a PERT

Using PERT, you would order the activities in a realistic and useful manner.



                                                                                                                                                                  Fig 1. PERT

This PERT chart illustrates dependencies and a critical path. For example, programming and testing happens therefore in this case it is important to test it to make sure there are no errors in order to cut down the amount of work after programming is completed. The end date at the minimum should correspondingly be set for when the system is hoped to be fully implemented.

Example of a Gantt chart

The Gantt chart is used to represent the plan of the project, and to give individual tasks to people within a certain time slot. This is important as it tracks the progress of each individual’s tasks and gives them a better idea of when the project should be completed.



                                                                                                                                                                 Fig 2. Gantt chart  

 As shown above in the Grantt chart is the time period that each task would be completed in. This gives us a useful representation of the plan. This allows improved project planning, and gives people a good sense of when the project is to be due by.

This video clip below will show you in more detail as to why Grantt charts are important and will give you a clearer understanding of how it is used within an organisation.

In comparison both of the PERT and Gantt chart methods are good tools and techniques required for one of the most important parts of systems implementation which of course is planning! Which technique would you use?

 Please comment and give your feedback!


  • Annon. (2014). Systems Implementation. Available: Last accessed 9th Apr 2014.
  • Whiteley.d (2013). ‘Introduction to information systems’. Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.273.
  • Figure 1- Blackboard Lecture 9-10 Fletcher, G. (2014)
  • Figure 2- Blackboard Lecture 9-10 Fletcher, G. (2014)

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Systems Implementation

Systems Implementation

By: hanamughal

In systems implementation there are many stages that are involved. These consist of: 

  • project planning
  • programming
  • Testing
  • Implementation
  • Maintenance                                                                             

 [fig 1-System Implementation lecture slide 9/10]

All of these stages are significantly important aspect in the successful implementation of a project.

Project Planning

Project planning is about the manager of the organisation who is required to plan the project. This will involve the following techniques:

  • PERT chart
  • Gantt chart

These can be used for planning and progress monitoring. The project structure provides focus, which is then followed by a set of objectives of the project team which requires to be on time, within the required budget and with to an appropriate quality. The project manager should plan out the project thoroughly and to examine the progress. (Whileley.D.2013)

What is PERT?

“PERT (Program Evaluation and Review Technique); a project planning technique that charts each activity in relation to other activities taking into account the dependencies between them” (Whiteley.D. 2013).



[fig 2-PERTchart lecture slide 9/10]

A PERT is an acronym to express Program Evaluation and Review Technique  chart is an approach to represent a project schedule, showing the sequence of tasks , which tasks can be achieved alongside the critical path of tasks that are required to be completed on time to assure the project to meet its required deadline. The following chart can be formed “with a variety of attributes, such as earliest and latest start dates for each task, earliest and latest finish dates for each task, and slack time between tasks. A PERT chart can document an entire project or a key phase of a project “(Concordia 2014).

When do we us it?

We use it mainly for project management tool because PERT chart seems to be the most suitable tool for planning and monitoring projects or for implementation of planning or for improvement.

The Gantt chart:

“Gantt chart: a type of bar chart that plots project activity against timescale and is used to document project plans (Whiteley.D. 2013).

[fig 3-Gantt chart lecture slide 9/10]


Gantt charts are beneficial in planning how long a project should take and helping to order the events by placing them in order in tasks should go in that are needed to be completed. Gantt charts are also alternative technique to be used of a project plan (Whileley.D. 2013).


This video clip below will demonstrate in more detail about what Gantt charts is all about:

Programming is part of information system  it involves the requirements and design that are required within the system. The next step is that the system  is then implemented as software by the programmer.

For more information relating to programming please watch the following clip:


PERT chart 2014 last accessed 09/04/2014-

Gantt Chart 2014, last accessed 09/04/2014-

Introduction to Information Systems Whiteley D, 2013, Palgrave Macmillan, New York, Chapter 12 – Implementing the Information Systems, page 273,274,275,276,279,281,284


Figure 1-systems implementation -lecture slide Gordon Fletcher week 9/10

Figure 2- PERT Chart lecture slide Gordon Fletcher week 9/10

Figure 3- Gantt Chart lecture slide Gordon week 9/10

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